India: Bharat, Hindustan – The Golden Bird

Delhi is the capital of our country. Our great freedom Sur Veers sacrificed their lives and liberated India from the British in 1947. People of different castes and religions live in love in India where people of Hindu Muslim Sikh Seisman, etc., live together. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar is the most populated state of india.


India comes to Asia Mahadeep. The national flag of our country is a tricolour flag. One of the world’s famous countries is India. Every Indian citizen should know about it as its history, conflict and other important things. In the main examination or class test, students are generally given a few paragraphs or full essay on this subject in school or college. Here we are providing essays for the help of students of different classes with very easy to understand India and with different word boundaries.

Religious freedom

People in India have the right to religious freedom. There are a large number of people belonging to different types of tribes in the country, which is why a lot of languages are spoken here, but the national language of India is Hindi. There are so many rivers flowing in our country, out of which the river Ganga is considered to be the most sacred river. Apart from this, Narmada, Godavari, Tapti and other huge rivers flow.

King Bharat

My India country is the most beloved country in the world. Our country of India is also known as India. India (India) is named after King Bharat, who was the son of King Dushyant and Shankatala. Our country is a very vast country and it comes in seventh place in terms of field. In terms of population, our country comes second after China.


India is also known as an agricultural country and apart from that India is also considered a festival country. Deepawali, Lohri, Holi, the main festival of India, many festivals are celebrated with great enthusiasm and enthusiasm. From the point of view of food, our country is a self-reliant country where a variety of crops are grown. Most people in India live in villages.

agriculture in india

India is also considered to be the land of the Mahapuras, guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Gobind Singh, Mahavir, Lord Rama and Buddha were born in this country. There were many great people like Surveer Bhagat Singh of Freedom, Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi.

Apart from this, the Himalayan Mountains, covered with snow peaks in India’s uted land, are the Arib Sea in the Bay of Bengal and Pashhimam in the south. Agra’s Taj Mahal, red fort, Qutubminar, which is counted among the seven wonders of the world, has historical buildings. China, Bangladesh, Pakistan are the neighbouring countries of India.

A country where mothers feed God

This country is a country where mothers feed God in the dock. Our name was named after the name of Raja Bharat who was the son of King Dushyant and Rani Shankuntala. Its ancient name is Aryavarta. The British named it India. I India is a huge Our country is Kashmir. Our country is from Kanyakumari. People of different castes and religions are together. I have many holy places like Haridwar, Kashi, Mathura, Dwarka etc. I Ray nation’s capital Delhi I India is an agricultural country I called the land of festivals I major festival of India, Diwali I this festival is celebrated in the joy of the coming Ayodhya Lord Rama.

Crops grow in India

Many types of crops grow in India. Our country is self-reliant with the view of food. The British ruled our country for nearly 200 years and exploited our country very much. Our country got independence on August 15, 1947. Our country First gold was called bird. After getting independence, India has made many advancements in many Kshatrias. I have been blessed with great fortune. I am Lord Ram, Krishna, Buddha, Mahavir, Guru Nanak etc. etc. I am in India today. I am a democracy. I am a secular country and the Constitution has given equal rights to every citizen. I have a national flag by tricolor our country.


India is a country where people speak different languages ​​and people of different caste, religion, sect and culture live together. For this reason, this common statement of “unity in diversity” is famous in India. It is also called the spirit of spirituality, philosophy, science and technological. Since ancient times, people of different religions such as Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Jains and Jews live together. This country is famous for its agriculture and agriculture, which has been the basis of it since ancient times. It uses its grains and fruits. This is a famous tourist paradise because it attracts people from all over the world. These are the means of revenue for monuments, tombs, churches, historic buildings, temples, museums, delightful scenes, wildlife sanctuaries, architectural place etc.


This is the place where the Taj Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri, Golden Temple, Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Ooty, Eucalyptus, Kashmir, Khajuraho, Ajanta and Ellora caves are present. It is a land of great rivers, mountains, valleys, lakes and oceans. India’s national language is Hindi. This is a country with 29 states and 7 union territories. It is mainly an agricultural country which is famous for producing crops like sugarcane, cotton, jute, rice, wheat, pulses etc. This is a country where great leaders (Shivaji, Gandhiji, Nehru, Dr. Ambedkar etc), great scientists (Dr. Jagdish Chandra Bose, Dr. Homi Bhabha, Dr. C.V. Raman, Dr. Naralikar etc) and great social reformers (T. N. Session, Padrangashastri Alwale etc.) were born. This is a country where diversity exists with peace and unity.

Geaography of india

Democratic country

India is my motherland where I have born. I love India and I’m proud of it. India is a large democratic country, which is second only to population in China after population. It has a rich and glorious history. It is seen as the country of the old civilization of the world. It is the land of learning where students from every corner of the world come to study in the universities here. This country is famous for its unique and diverse culture and tradition of people of many religions. Due to being attracted to nature, people living abroad also follow the culture and tradition here. Many attackers came here and stole their beauty and precious things here. Some took this as their slave, but due to the struggle and sacrifice of many great leaders of the country, in 1947, our motherland became free from slavery of the British.

Independence Day

Every day on August 15, every year since our motherland is celebrated, it is celebrated as Independence Day. Pandit Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India. Despite being a country full of natural resources, the residents here are poor. Because of the excellent people like Ravindranath Tagore, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, Sir C.V. Raman, Mr. HN Bhabha etc, they are constantly growing in the field of technology, science, and literature. This is a peaceful country where people celebrate their festivals without any intervention and people of different religions follow their culture and tradition. There are many great historical buildings, heritage, monuments and beautiful scenes which attract people’s minds of different countries every year. In India, the Taj Mahal is a great monument and a symbol of love and Kashmir is in the form of earth’s paradise. These are the countries of famous temples, mosques, churches, gurudwaras, rivers, valleys, arable fields, the highest mountain etc.

Divine Country

My country is the land of great men like Bharat Shiva, Parvati, Krishna, Hanuman, Buddha, Mahatma Gandhi, Swami Vivekananda and Kabir etc. This is a country where great people take birth and do great work. I love my country very much and salute it. It is famous for its largest democracy and the oldest civilization in the world. After China it is the world’s most populous country. This is a country where gentle people of many religions and culture live together. This is the land of great warriors like Rana Pratap, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel, Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Lala Lajpat Rai etc. All these great leaders of the country came from the villages and led the country forward. These people fought for many years and liberated the country from the British rule.


In India, Indian philosophy of life is followed, which is called Sanatan Dharma and here is the main reason for maintaining unity in diversity. India is a democratic country where the people of the country have the right to make decisions about the country. To see here there are many beautiful scenes of ancient times, places, monuments, historical heritage etc. which attract people from every corner of the world. India is very famous for its spiritual activities, yoga, martial arts etc. In India, a large crowd of devotees and pilgrims from other countries come to see the beauty of the famous temples, places and historical heritage here.

Philosophy in India

India is a democratic and democratic country where the people of the country have the right to make decisions for the betterment of the country. India is a famous country for this statement “Unity in diversity” because people of different caste, religion, culture and tradition live together in unity. Most Indian monuments and heritage sites are connected to the World Heritage site.

This is a prosperous country where great people were born in the field of literature, art and science like Ravindranath Tagore, Sara Chandra, Premchand, C.V. Raman, Jagdish Chandra Bose, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Kabir Das etc. Such great people of India have appreciated the country. This is a country where the regular river and ocean flows like Ganga, Yamuna, Godavari, Narmada, Brahmaputra, Krishna, Kaveri, Bay of Bengal, Arabic Sea etc. India is a beautiful country, surrounded by oceans from three sides. This is a country where people are intellectual and spiritual, they also believe in gods and goddesses.

This is the place where the Taj Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri, Golden Temple, Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Ooty, Eucalyptus, Kashmir, Khajuraho, Ajanta and Ellora caves are present. It is a land of great rivers, mountains, valleys, lakes and oceans. India’s national language is Hindi. This is a country with 29 states and 7 union territories. It is mainly an agricultural country which is famous for producing crops like sugarcane, cotton, jute, rice, wheat, pulses etc. This is a country where great leaders (Shivaji, Gandhiji, Nehru, Dr. Ambedkar etc), great scientists (Dr. Jagdish Chandra Bose, Dr. Homi Bhabha, Dr. C.V. Raman, Dr. Naralikar etc) and great social reformers (T. N. Session, Padrangashastri Alwale etc.) were born. This is a country where diversity exists with peace and unity.

Indian culture

There is everything in Indian culture like the idea of ​​heritage, the lifestyle of people, beliefs, customs, values, habits, upbringing, humility, knowledge etc. India is the oldest civilization in the world where people imitate the culture and upbringing of their old humanity. Culture is a way of dealing with others, to respond to things with gentleness, to understand our understanding of values, justice, principles and beliefs. Old-generation people give their culture and beliefs to the new generation. That is why all children behave well here because they have these cultures and traditions already received from their parents and grandparents. We can see the glimpse of Indian culture in all things, such as dance, music, art, behavior, social rules, food, handicrafts, costumes etc. India is a big melting pot, which has different beliefs and behaviors that give birth to different cultures here.

Culture India culture

It has its roots in the origin of different religions since about five thousand years ago. It is believed that Hinduism has originated from the Vedas here. All the holy scriptures of Hindu religion are written in Sanskrit language. It is also believed that the beginning of Jainism was from ancient times and its existence was in the Indus Valley. Buddha is another religion which originated in the country after the teachings of God Gautam Buddha. Christianity came here with the British and French who ruled here for a long time for nearly 200 years. In this way the origin of different religions has been brought here from ancient times or in some way. However, people of all religions remain together peacefully without affecting their customs and beliefs.

Indian culture

Many eras have come and gone but no one has become so influential that they can change our real culture. Through the Nabirajju, the culture of the old generation is still connected to the new generation. Our national culture always teaches us to behave well, respect elders, help compelled people, and help poor and needy people. It is our religious culture that we keep fasting, worship, offer the Ganges water, do the sun salute, touch the feet of the family members, meditate and do yoga everyday, and feed the hungry and the disabled. This great culture of our nation is that we serve our guests with great pleasure because guests are the form of God. This is why the statement of “Guest Devo Bhav:” in India is very famous. The basic root of our culture is human and spiritual work.

Indian culture Marriage

Indian National Flag

The national flag of India is known as Tiranga and it is a symbol of the pride of our nation. It is an important and integral part of the Indian republic. The tricolor represents the unity of our country and the Akhnagta. That is why all the citizens of this country respect it.

Flag of India

Tiranga is hoisted on all the government buildings in the country. It is a common practice to unfurl the tricolor on occasion like Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti.

Importance of Indian National Flag

Our national flag tricolor shows the cultural heritage, civilization and history of our country. The tricolor fluttering in the air is a symbol of our independence. This reminds us of Indian freedom fighters who sacrificed for the country fighting the British rule.

At the same time, it inspires us to be humble and reflects the importance of our independence and independence, which we have received after so many tireless efforts.

The Indian national flag is called a tricolor because it contains three colors, saffron, white and green. Most of this, saffron color reflects neutrality, which means that the leaders of our country should remain neutral with all materialistic things and service to the nation should be their first priority. Then comes the middle white color which shows the truth and purity, which means that we should always walk on the path of truth.

The lower part of the tricolor is green in color which reflects the soil and natural heritage of our country. At the same time, the marks of the Ashok Chakra in the middle of the tricolor are marked, which show the rule of religion, indicating that religion and virtuous nation are the main attributes of service. Along with that, it inspires us to go ahead and overcome the difficulties and difficulties in life.

History of Indian National Flag

The history of the Indian National Flag is very interesting, during the Indian independence struggle in 1921, the idea of ​​a flag came first in the mind of Mahatma Gandhi for the Indian National Congress. The wheel was rotating in the middle of this flag. That which Gandhiji’s countrymen used to wear khadi by dressing and dressing him, showed the goal of being swallowed, there were many changes in time, and many other changes were made during India’s independence. In which the wheels of Charkha were converted from the Ashoka Chakra, which exhibits the Dharma Chakra.

Important things related to the regulation of the Indian National Flag

Each person of the Republic of India is expected to honor and respect the Indian National Flag. For this reason, some rules and regulations have been made to prevent the disrespect of the national flag. Some of these rules are given below respectively.

The hoarse tricolor can be made from woven garments only with khadi or hand, and the tricolor made from any other type of thing is punishable under the law. During the ceremony, the tricolor can be held on the right side by the flag manger and the flag should always be drawn from the front of the ceremony.

The tricolor should always be waved high, it should not be bowed in front of the key object.

No other flag can be wiped from above or equal to the tricolor. Whenever the tricolor is being hoisted, it is necessary for the present people to stand in a careful posture and respect the Tricolor.

The tricolor hoisted on the torch height of the mast shows mourning, if the President, Vice-President or Prime Minister dies during his service, then the whole country is hoisted to the tricolor masts only.


Our national flag is a symbol of our pride, we must protect its dignity at all costs. The tricolor should always be hoisted high because it is a symbol of our independence, which we have received after years of sacrifice and sacrifices for so many years.

National festivals of India

India is known as the land of festivals. Every Indian state has its own special occasions, which are celebrated every year with great enthusiasm. On this day people decorate their houses, wear new clothes, and visit these festivals during their festivals to visit their loved ones and loved ones. In addition to many religious festivals, three national festivals are celebrated in the country, which are Independence Day, Republic Day and Gandhi Jayanti. All these festivals are celebrated with great enthusiasm throughout the country.

Indian Festival

Some historical events behind the significance of these festivals and their celebration are as follows:

1: Independence Day (Freedom struggle)

For decades, the British had established India as its colony. During British rule, they abused the citizens of India. Citizens were forced to work hard and for this they were given less hard work and in the same way the persecution of the British was increasing day by day. Freedom fighters such as Mahatma Gandhi, Chandrashekhar Azad, Shaheed Bhagat Singh, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Sarojini Naidu not only fought for the country but also encouraged the free people to participate in the freedom struggle.

A special day to honor freedom fighters

Due to the efforts of Indian freedom fighters and their struggle, India finally got freedom in the year 1947. On 15th August 1947, the country of India attained independence and was celebrated this day as Independence Day every year. On this day Independence Day is celebrated every year to honor and pay tribute to the great leaders who help us to achieve independence.

A special day to celebrate freedom

Independence Day is a special day to celebrate Independence. On this day, many special events are organized to celebrate this festival throughout the country.

2: Republic Day (Day of celebration of the constitution of Indian Constitution)

The Government of India Act (1935) was replaced by the Constitution of India on January 26, 1950. It was the legal document of the country, Republic Day is celebrated every year to honor the Indian Constitution.

Special festoon time

There is a grand ceremony every year on Republic Day. These days are celebrated with special tariko. There is a major Republic Day celebration in the country’s capital, New Delhi. The President of India hoists the country’s national flag in Rajpath and the national anthem begins. After this parade and cultural events are organized. On this day, gallantry awards are also distributed.

3: Gandhi Jayanti (A special day to remember the respected freedom fighter)

Mahatma Gandhi played an active role in the Indian freedom struggle. He led various freedom movements and challenged the British at every step. Every year on October 2, it is celebrated on this day to pay homage to the whole of India.

Gandhi Jayanti

Inspiration to follow the path of truth and non-violence

Mahatma Gandhi’s ideology was quite different from other leaders of his time. Most freedom fighters resorted to aggressive means to get the British out of the country, while Mahatma Gandhi followed the path of truth and non-violence. His ideology was not only an inspiration for people of his time but for the younger generation too. Gandhi Jayanti inspires Bapu to memorize the great ideologies and inspire him in his life.


The feeling of attachment and dedication to your country is called nationalism. Nationalism is the only thing that binds all the citizens of any country in spite of the differences of tradition, language, ethnicity and culture.

Comparison of nation with mother

The nation has been compared to the mother, not just in our country, but in the whole world. Just as a mother rearves her children, a nation also fulfills the various needs of its citizens through its natural resources. We are able to forget many differences by class, caste and religious divisions by the spirit of nationalism and it has been seen that whenever whenever there is a situation of war in any two countries, all the citizens of those countries are united, Feel the spirit of the soldiers of our country with spirit.

Nationalism binds the country into one-sided

Nationalism is a collective feeling whose strength can be estimated from the reality that people living in the boundaries of the country on their basis give importance to the nation towards their different assimensions and if necessary, for the country. Do not hesitate to sacrifice even the souls. Due to the spirit of nationalism, people who are never met by each other and totally unaware of each other are tied in the form of national unity. In all the countries of the world, through nationalism, citizens have been able to agree on different issues related to the nation.

Nationalism and globalization

According to some scholars, the process of globalization has influenced nationalist ideology to some extent and now that there is no special meaning of national boundaries and this situation has challenged the spirit of nationalism. Their reasoning is that apart from globalization, technological advancements like internet and mobile phones have greatly reduced the rates in the world, although this interpretation of nationalism is immaterial.

Urban life versus Rural life

Life has its own positive and negative aspects in both rural and urban areas. The lives of both areas are quite different from each other. Traditionally, India is primarily a rural country, as Mahatma Gandhi had said that the real India resides in the villages.

Importance of festivals in villages

There is a lot of festivals and fairs in the villages. Here festivals are traditionally celebrated with the spirit of brotherhood. Holi, Baisakhi, Pongal, Onam, Dussehra, Diwali or Eid are the festivals, the whole village plays on folk music tunes together. All the people in the village live in bondage of the community. They share the conditions of life whether they have any sadness or happiness among themselves. However, their lifestyle does not develop much in comparison to urban people, but the rural people are warm and more cordial. They also care for each other more and all the people in the village also know each other. They are not in a state of isolation like metropolitan cities.

Natural beauty

The natural beauty of the villages in India is also noticed. The blanket of flowers around the green fields and spreading far and wide, the drug scent is spreading. The birds happily surround the fields, pans and houses in the village. Simplicity is the identity of rural life.

From rural areas to urban areas

Unfortunately, due to the dullness of the search and the comforts of materials and amenities, people are fleeing from rural areas to the urban areas in a big way. However, now the country is moving forward in the case of living standards and urbanization is happening at a faster pace. Facilities like electricity, water, concrete roads, telephones, mobile phones, computers, education and medical care are now accessible in many parts of rural India. Farmers are also using modern farming machines, and now they are holding fields by tractors instead of oxen.

Problems in Rural Life

But there are many problems in rural life too. There are frequent disputes related to land, and sometimes there are also incidents of bloodshed and violence due to love marriage in the same tribe. Many times, Gram Panchayats listen to various controversies and hear very harsh and ruthless decisions. Which keeps people’s life to become a story full of pain and pain.

The people of the village depend on the sale of their agriculture like grains, fruits and vegetables in their urban markets, as well as urban people can not survive without supplying essential items for the life being done from the rural areas. From the villages, people come to the city every day to buy essential items of the latest amenities of modern life, to watch movies, to celebrate and to work in urban establishments. Indeed, the overall development of India is impossible without the harmonious development of the villages and cities because they are complementary to each other.

Digital India

July 1, 2015 Digital India project was started by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. This is an effective plan for transformed India for better development and growth of the people of the country. In the presence of senior ministry colleagues and CEOs of key companies, the PM launched Digital India Week (July 1 to 7 July) on Wednesday.

digital india

The main goal of this scheme is to give India a digital extension for good governance and more jobs. India’s PM made its best efforts towards the digitization campaign to eradicate the gap between government service and people. Digitization was very important in India for more growth and better future than any other country.

The following benefits of digital India campaign:

  1. This will make digital locker arrangements possible, which will result in reduction of paperwork by reducing the physical documents as well as reducing e-sharing through registered archive.
  2. This is an effective online platform that can involve people in the governance system through various approaches like “discussion, working, and distribution”.
  3. This will ensure the achievement of various online goals by the government.
  4. Depositing your documents and certificates from anywhere will make it possible for the people and also reduce the physical work.
  5. The citizen can sign their documents online through e-signature structure.
  6. Through e-hospital facilities, it can make important health supplement services easier, such as online registration, taking time to meet doctor, depositing fees, conducting online check-up, blood checking etc.
  7. Through the National Scholarship Portal, these benefits are available to the beneficiary through submission of certificates, authentication procedures, approvals and disbursements.
  8. This is a big platform that makes it easy for its citizens to effectively and efficient delivery of government and private services across the country.
  9. India Net Program (Fast High Speed ​​Digital Highway) will connect approximately 250,000 Gram Panchayats in the country.
  10. The external source policy is also a plan to help the Digital India initiative. For better management of online services on mobile, such as voice, data, multimedia etc., the network of next generation of BSNL will replace the 30-year old telephone exchange.
  11. The National Center for Flexible Electronic will help promote Flexible Electronic
  12. Throughout the country, BSNL has planned to spread the Wi-Fi hotspot extensively.
  13. Broadband highway is used to handle all related issues related to connectivity.
  14. Open access to broadband highways in all cities, towns and villages will make available the availability of world-class service at one click of the mouse.

Make in India

On September 25, 2014, the Make in India program was started by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi. This was an initiative to invest in India (national and international) to call the main business investors from all over the world. In order to establish their business in any field (production, textiles, automobile, construction, retail, chemical, IT, port, medicine, hospitality, tourism, health, railway, leather etc.) in the country, all the investors This is a big opportunity for me. In order to set up manufacturing powerhouse in India, there is a resourceful proposal for this attractive scheme for foreign companies.

make in india

To make it a global center for business (from satellite to submarine, from car to software, from medicinal to harbor, paper to energy etc.), with the improvement of the digital network in the country, with focus on building effective physical structure Make In India campaign started by the government. Its symbol (taken from the national symbol of India) is a huge lion, which has many wheels (indicates the path of peaceful progress and bright future). The lion running with many wheels points to courage, strength, perseverance and intelligence. Make in India page has got 1,20,00 leks on Facebook and within a few months from the date of launch, more than 130,000 followers have been on Twitter.

This national program has been designed to change the country in a global business center because it has attractive proposals for local and foreign companies. With the aim of improving the situation of the youth of the country in nearly 25 sectors, the focus of this campaign is to create a large number of valuable and reputable jobs. It includes automobiles, chemicals, IT and BPM, aviation industry, pharmaceuticals, construction, electricity related machines, food processing, defense, manufacturing, space, textiles, textile industries, ports, leather, media and entertainment, health, mining, tourism and hospitality. , Railway, automobile components, renewable energy, biotechnology, road and highways, electronic bodies and thermal energy.

Successful implementation of this scheme will help in building 100 smart city projects and affordable home in India. With the help of major investors, it is the main goal of creating strong growth and valuable employment in the country. This will benefit both the people on both sides, both the investor and our country, An online portal ( and a dedicated support team for the effective and easy communication of investors has been made by the Indian government. At any time, a faithful shell is dedicated to answering all the questions of business companies.

Democracy in India

After independence from the clutches of British rule in 1947, democracy was formed in India. This led to the birth of the world’s largest democracy. Due to the effective leadership of the Indian National Congress, the people of India got the right to vote and choose their government.

Democracy in India

Democratic theory of india

At present, there are seven national parties in India, which are: Indian National Congress (NCP), Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), BJP (BJP), Communist Party of India M), All India Trinamool Congress (TMC) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). Apart from these, many regional parties fight for state assembly elections. Elections in Parliament and state assemblies in India are held every 5 years.

The democratic principles of India are as follows:


Sovereign means independent – free from the interference or control of any foreign power. The government that runs the country is an elected government by the citizens. Indian citizens have the power to elect their leaders by elections made for parliament, local body and state legislature.


Socialist means social and economic equality for all citizens of the country. Democratic socialism means achieving socialist goals through evolutionary, democratic and nonviolent means. The government is constantly making efforts to reduce the concentration of funds and reduce economic inequality.


This means that the right to choose religion and freedom In India, anyone has the right to practice any religion or reject them. The Indian government respects all religions and they do not have any official state religion. India’s democracy does not insult or promote any religion.


This means that the government of the country has been elected democratically by its citizens. The people of the country have the right to choose their government at all levels (union, state and local). The adult franchise of people is known as ‘a man a vote’. Voting rights are given on the basis of color, caste, creed, religion, sex or education without any discrimination. Not only the political but the people of India also enjoy social and economic democracy.

The republic

The head of the state is the hereditary king or queen but not an elected person. The formal chief of the state, meaning the President of India, is elected by the electoral process (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) for a period of five years, while the executive powers are vested in the Prime Minister.

Challenges faced by Indian democracy

The constitution promises a democratic state and provides all kinds of rights to the people of India. There are many factors that work to influence Indian democracy and have become a challenge for this. Some of these are discussed below for the following factors.


The illiteracy of people is one of the biggest challenges that have always been coming out since the beginning of Indian democracy. Education enables people to use their right to vote wisely.


Generally, people of the poor and backward classes are always tampered with by the political parties. Political parties often give bribe and other types of temptations to get votes from them.

Apart from these, there are many other factors like casteism, gender discrimination, communalism, religious fundamentalism, political violence and corruption which have become a challenge for democracy in India.

Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Rights

There are some fundamental rights which are famous for being human and fundamental for human expansion. In the absence of these rights, the existence of any man will be useless. Thus when political institutions were formed, their role and responsibilities were mainly focused on people (especially minorities) to live with the right of equality, respect and religious freedom.

Classification of Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Rights have been classified into 6 categories. Here are:

  1. Right to equality
  2. Right to freedom
  3. Rights against exploitation
  4. Right to freedom of religion
  5. Cultural and educational rights
  6. Right to Constitutional Measures

Let us now know briefly about these 6 Fundamental Rights:

Right to equality

This includes equality before the law, which means that the ban on equal protection of the law, public employment, untouchability and the elimination of title on the basis of caste, creed, color or gender. It has been said that all citizens are equal in law and there is no discrimination against anyone in any way. This right also shows that everyone has equal access to public places.

In order to provide equal opportunity, in government services, there will be no reservation for the widows and physically handicapped persons except the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes. This right was mainly made to eliminate untouchability, which had been practiced in India for decades.

Right to freedom

It includes expression of speech, freedom of speech, freedom of making union and allies and freedom of travel anywhere in India, freedom of living and settling in any part of India and freedom to choose a profession.

It has also been said under this right that any citizen of India has full right to buy, sell and maintain property in any part of the country. People have the freedom to join any business or business. This right also defines that a person can not be held guilty twice for the same crime and can not be compelled to stand as a witness against himself.

Rights against exploitation

It involves restrictions against any kind of forced labor. Children under the age of 14 are not allowed to work in mines or factories, where the risk of life is involved. According to this, no person has the right to exploit the other person in any way. Thus, human trafficking and beggars have been made a legal crime and there is a provision to punish people found involved in it. Similarly, slavery and human trafficking have been declared as crime for women and children for unscrupulous purposes. Minimum payment for wages has been defined and no agreement is allowed in this regard.

Right to freedom of religion

It has been said that there will be complete freedom of discrimination for all citizens of India. Everyone will have the right to adopt, exercise and spread the religion of their choice independently and the Center and the State Government will not in any way hinder any religious matters of any kind. All religions will have the right to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes and will be free to manage their own affairs in relation to these.

Cultural and educational rights

It is one of the most important rights because education is considered the primary right of every child. Cultural rights say that every country wants to preserve its cultural heritage. According to this right, all are free to develop a culture of their choice and are free to acquire any kind of education. No person will be denied admission to any educational institution on the basis of his culture, caste or religion. All minorities have the right to establish their own educational institutions.

Right to Constitutional Measures

It has a very special right given to the citizens. According to this right, every citizen has the power to go to court. If any of the above mentioned rights are not followed, then the court is standing as a guard against the violation of these rights. If in any case the government is forcefully or deliberately doing injustice to any person, or if a person is imprisoned without any reason or illegal work, then the right to take constitutional measures, the person should go to court and get justice against the actions of the government.

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